In Criminalized Power Structures: The Overlooked Enemies of Peace we provide extensive documentation from ten case studies that Criminalized Power Structures (CPS) are the predominant spoilers of peace and stability operations. This core challenge is chronically overlook (our cases average a 5-year delay), squandering the “golden hour.” In Criminalized Power Structures: A Toolkit we describe 17 tools and distill these into actionable steps to address this recurrent threat by enhancing the international capacity to deal with the spoiler menace. The most basic step is to stop overlooking the problem through proper assessment and implementation of appropriate strategies tailored to the three different types of CPS (i.e., irreconcilables, violent opponents with negotiable interests, and supporters such as Hamid Karzai and Nouri al-Maliki).  The central finding of these works is that conflict transformation, with its three “ways,” contains the correct mix for dealing with CPS. All three ways are required, but, depending on the type of CPS, one line of effort should be primary. The purpose of these two volumes is to improve upon the success rate of peace and stability operations which, in the estimation of former UN Secretary General Kofi Annan is a dismal 50% with half of international interventions resulting in a return to conflict within five years. We propose six critical recommendations to accomplish this that require no new revenue sources -- and should save billions. For an update on progress toward implementation of these recommendations and an opportunity to provide feedback, comments, and suggestions, please click here.


1. Sharpen pre-mission assessments to identify whether criminalized power structures are driving the conflict.
2. Provide empowering mandates, especially use of hybrid justice institutions for crimes against the mandate.
3. Sever the flow of illicit revenue to CPS.
4. Adopt criminal intelligence-led policing.
5. Make accountability a priority equal to capacity building.
6. Create a surge capacity for and add specialized capabilities to police to seize the "golden hour."
Pax Advisory is dedicated to the implementation of these recommendations. Please see "Progress" for a description of what has been implemented to date.

Criminalized Power Structures: The Overlooked Enemies of Peace

Combating Criminalized Power Structures: a Toolkit

Pax Advisory is dedicated to the implementation of the recommendations described in the Proposals. Here we record the progress that has been made to date. Please use the “Comments” box at the bottom to provide feedback and suggestions for enhancing the capacity of international interventions to deal more effectively with spoilers and criminalized power structures.

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